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【爱马斯全球】食品加工的全球趋势

  Food processing facilities follow the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) rules, but these food safety guidelines are the bare minimum facilities undertake to prevent contamination. In addition to HACCP, these facilities follow rules regarding high- and low-care (or high- and low-risk) areas.

  用于食品加工的设备应遵循“危害分析和关键控制点(HACCP)”准则,但这些食品安全条例也只能起到最基础的防止食品加工污染的作用。这些设备除了遵循HACCP,还应遵循从高到低的食品安全区域化管理。

  High- and low-care areas establish physical barriers against contamination and relate to anything that creates a process, such as washing, salting and cooking. This not only applies to personal protective equipment (PPE), but also the facility itself. The regulations designate clear start and end points for different parts of the processing supply chain to prevent microbial growth and other types of contamination.

  安全区域化管理制度在各种污染物间建立了物理屏障,这包括洗涤、腌渍和烹饪的分区域管理。该制度不仅适用于个人防护设备(PPE),还适用于加工设备本身。这个制度清晰地规定了食品加工链上不同环节的节点,以防止微生物的滋生和其他类型的污染。

  Here is an overview of how high- and low-care areas work:

  以下是怎样做好从高到低的安全区域化管理的概述:

  What are high- and low-care areas?

  什么是从高到低的安全区域化管理制度?

  When employing these guidelines, each facility has its own standards. However, one factor remains constant: As food products move further up the supply chain, the control standards become more strict. Essentially, as food goes from farm to table, it will move from low- to high-care areas.

  每台设备在套用这些准则的同时,也有着自己的标准。但不管怎样,有一个原则保持不变:随着食品在食物链各环节上的逐步推进,管控标准就变得愈加严格。大致上可以这样形容,从农田到餐桌的过程,就是区域安全管理从低到高的过程。

  "As food goes from farm to table, it will move from low- to high-care areas."

  从农田到餐桌,区域安全管理力度从低到高。

  As implied by the name, low-care areas require a lower standard of hygiene than high-care segments of a facility. Although food products in these areas may have contact with the environment, they are not at risk for additional contamination, according to Food Safety Magazine. Food processing steps to be completed in low-care areas include receiving, preparing and cooking food.

  顾名思义,低安全区域管理的卫生标准要比高安全区域管理低。根据食品安全杂志报道,尽管在整个食品加工流程中,食品会暴露在环境中,但这并不会带来额外的污染风险。原料进入、原料加工和原料烹饪这些环节是低安全区域管理环节。

  High-care areas have the utmost hygiene standards. Furthermore, these sections of the facility are temperature-controlled.

  高安全区域管理的环节有着最为严格的卫生标准。此外,使用在这些环节的设备都有着温控要求。

  Before entering either of these areas, workers must change into the appropriate PPE at designated changing stations and wash their hands throughout the process. In the case of equipment moving between areas, these tools must undergo sanitation procedures.

  在进入这些生产环节前,操作人员必须在指定地点换上合适的个人防护装备(PPE),并勤洗手。在设备流转于不同的环节中时,必须按照卫生程序进行处理。

  How do facilities delineate high- and low-care areas?

  怎样定义设备上的从高到低的安全区域?

  Several factors establish the barriers between different sections of a food processing facility. These include installations and PPE, according to the British Retail Consortium's Global Standards.

  英国零售联盟全球标准指出,食品加工设施中,几个因素健全了防护屏障,包括设备安全及个人防护装备。

  For the physical structure, a few features are present in both areas but more extensive in high-care sections: entrances; filtration systems to remove dust, microorganisms and airborne particles; and color coded floor markings. Color coding also applies to PPE, tools used for processing and appliances.

  从物理结构上看,这两个区域有着共同点,不过以下场景在高安全区域应用更加广泛:如入口都有过滤系统用于除尘、杀死微生物或过滤悬浮颗粒;又如地板用颜色编码。颜色编码也适用于PPE和加工设备。

  The physical segregation also includes transfer points. These are places in the facilities between low- and high-care areas where employees must complete certain steps to prevent contamination. Before workers or equipment pass from one area to the other, they must undergo the aforementioned hygiene and sanitation procedures in the transfer point. In some factories, employees cannot move between low- and high-care areas under any circumstances.

  物理隔离还包括设备在流通过程中涉及到的环节。在设备流通于或低或高的安全区域之间时,员工必须做好特定操作以防止污染。无论是设备还是人员在从一个区域转移到另一个区域前,必须做好上文提到的卫生处理工作。在某些厂区内,无论何种情况,工人们是不能在高低管控区域内流通的。

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  As part of the segregation measures for low- and high-care areas,

  employees must wash their hands before moving from one area to the other.

  作为从高到低安全区域管理措施的一部分,员工从一个区域流转到另一个区域之前必须洗手

  How do facilities establish a flow to prevent contamination?

  设施之间如何建立防止污染的流程?

  Food processing plants have certain guidelines and layouts to further ensure activities in low-care areas do not affect high-care sections.

  食品加工厂有特定的准则以规划,以进一步确保低安全区域的活动不会影响到高安全区域。

  Drainage is one key concern. Any drainage systems in the facility must flow from a high-care area to a low-care area. This ensures no contaminates, such as blood from livestock, flow into a high-care section and come into contact with cooked foods.

  排污是个关键环节。设备中的所有排污系统必须从高安全区域流向低安全区域,以确保没有污染。比如畜生的血液,必须流经高管控区域后在与熟食接触。

  Another aspect of flow is the cooking process. Because foods are raw when they begin cooking in a low-care area, BRC's standards require double doors on cooking ovens for thorough segregation of cooked and uncooked food products. While some facilities use single-door ovens, they put additional sanitation measures in place to prevent contamination in lieu of a second physical barrier.

  流转的管控方式还应用于蒸煮的环节。因为在生的食物被烹饪时是处于低安全的环节中,所以BRC的标准要求使用双门烹饪炉,以便生熟分离。尽管有些设施用的是单门烤箱,但他们会采用额外的措施以防止污染到下一个程序。

  What is the global perspective?

  什么是全球观?

  More foods are processed now compared to previous years, which raises the chances that part of the supply chain takes place in another country. Not only does this refer to steps in the process, but it also applies to where the ingredients come from.

  与往年相比,越来越多的食物要经过加工处理,这就增加了食物链中的一个环节在另外一个国家完成的可能性。不仅是食品加工,也包含食品原材料的来源。

  Different countries have varying degrees of regulation for food processing, and the U.S. has less intense rules compared to Europe and Asia. For instance, the European Union enforces good hygiene practices (GHP), which include extensive training to make certain food processing employees prevent contamination, in addition to HACCP. As shown through regulations regarding low- and high-care areas, HACCP, GHP and other food safety guidelines, increased scrutiny and care of food processing and food safety are growing globally.

  不同的国家对食品加工有着不同的监管力度,相较于欧洲和亚洲,美国的标准较少。例如,欧盟除了执行HACCP外,还执行“良好卫生操作规范(GHP)”,GHP包含了提高食品加工人员防止污染意识的培训。如在高安全区域管理中所提到的,HACCP,GHP以及其他安全管理条例,都加强了食品加工过程和食品安全的审查力度及受关注度。

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  Requirements for high- and low-care areas include the

  physical structure of food processing plants and PPE.

  从高到低的安全区域管理包含了食品加工厂的物理布局及个人防护装备


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